Integrated Ion Exchange Resin Activated Carbon Ultrafiltration Unit for Well Water Treatment Into Drinking Water


  • Putu Teta Aryanti Jenderal Achmad Yani University
  • Tania Finarianingrum Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani
  • Annisa Rakhmawati Darlis Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani
  • Fahmi Widjaya Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani
  • Adhani Nur Fajrina5 Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani



Drinking Water, Activated Carbon, Water Treatment, Ion Exchange Resin, Ultrafiltration


The availability of healthy well water is still become a problem in several areas in Indonesia, including Cimahi City, West Java. In general, the well water is treated using sand filter and adsorbent (either activated carbon or zeolite). However, the conventional methods produced unsafe drinking water, which does not meet drinking water standards. This study proposed integrated polysulfone ultrafiltration (UF), activated carbon (KA), and ion exchange resin (IE), as an alternative technology. The UF membrane provided a permeate flux of 42 L.m-2h-1. Based on Hermia’s model, the fouling was dominated by total and standard fouling with R2 values of 0.8989 and 0.8952, respectively. During the 2 (two) hours of filtration, the permeate flux decreased by 19%. Based on data from the analysis of water products, the UF-KA unit reduced hardness, organic matter, iron, and other contaminants to below the threshold value for drinking water quality standards. However, the concentration of manganese compounds was still 0.601 mg/L above the standard threshold (0.4 mg/L). With the addition of the IE unit after the UF-KA process, the water products produced meet the drinking water quality standards. The removal of turbidity, iron, and manganese by the UF-KA-IE was 95.9%, 99.9%, and 72.5%


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tania Finarianingrum, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani

Jurusan Teknik Kimia

Annisa Rakhmawati Darlis, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani

Jurusan Teknik Kimia

Fahmi Widjaya, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani

Jurusan Teknik Kimia

Adhani Nur Fajrina5, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani

Jurusan Teknik Kimia


Abe, M. (2018). Oxides and hydrous oxides of multivalent metals as inorganic ion exchangers. In Inorganic ion exchange materials.(Mitsuo Abe, Eds) (pp. 161-274): CRC press, USA.

Ariono, D., Aryanti, P. T. P., Wardani, A. K., & Wenten, I. G. (2018). Fouling characteristics of humic substances on tight polysulfone-based ultrafiltration membrane. Membrane Water Treatment, 9(5), 353-361. doi:

Ariono, D., Wardani, A. K., Widodo, S., Aryanti, P. T. P., & Wenten, I. G. (2018). Fouling mechanism in ultrafiltration of vegetable oil. Materials Research Express, 5(3), 034009. doi:

Aryanti, P. T. P., Joscarita, S. R., Wardani, A. K., Subagjo, S., Ariono, D., & Wenten, I. G. (2016). The Influence of PEG400 and Acetone on Polysulfone Membrane Morphology and Fouling Behaviour. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 48(2), 135-149. doi:

Aryanti, P. T. P., Mukhaimin, I., Shiddiqi, Q. Y. A., & Triyastuti, M. S. T. (2020a). Instalasi Unit Ultrafiltrasi untuk Penyediaan Air Minum di Kota Cimahi. Jurnal Abdimas Kartika Wijayakusuma, 1(1), 20-27.

Aryanti, P. T. P., Nugroho, F. A., & Susilowati. (2020b). Unit Terintegrasi Elektrokoagulasi dan Ultrafiltrasi untuk Pengolahan Limbah Cair Tempe di Kelurahan Cimahi, Kecamatan Cimahi Tengah. WIDYA LAKSANA, 9(2), 176-182.

Aryanti, P. T. P., Subagjo, S., Ariono, D., & Wenten, I. G. (2015). Fouling and rejection characteristic of humic substances in polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane. Journal of Membrane Science and Research, 1, 41-45. doi:10.22079/JMSR.2015.12305

Baker, R. W. (2012). Membrane technology and applications: John Wiley & Sons, USA.

Chen, Y., Xu, W., Zhu, H., Wei, D., He, F., Wang, D., Du, B., & Wei, Q. (2019). Effect of turbidity on micropollutant removal and membrane fouling by MIEX/ultrafiltration hybrid process. Chemosphere, 216, 488-498. doi:

Cheng, L.-H., Xiong, Z.-Z., Cai, S., Li, D.-W., & Xu, X.-H. (2020). Aeration-manganese sand filter-ultrafiltration to remove iron and manganese from water: Oxidation effect and fouling behavior of manganese sand coated film. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 38, 101621.

Cheng, X., Li, P., Zhou, W., Wu, D., Luo, C., Liu, W., Ren, Z., & Liang, H. (2019). Effect of peroxymonosulfate oxidation activated by powdered activated carbon for mitigating ultrafiltration membrane fouling caused by different natural organic matter fractions. Chemosphere, 221, 812-823.

Delgado, N., Capparelli, A., Navarro, A., & Marino, D. (2019). Pharmaceutical emerging pollutants removal from water using powdered activated carbon: study of kinetics and adsorption equilibrium. Journal of Environmental Management, 236, 301-308.

Ding, J., Wang, S., Xie, P., Zou, Y., Wan, Y., Chen, Y., & Wiesner, M. R. (2020). Chemical cleaning of algae-fouled ultrafiltration (UF) membrane by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO): characterization of membrane and formation of halogenated by-products. Journal of Membrane Science, 598, 117662.

Gozali, G., Kusuma, B. J., & Mulyanto, S. (2020). Penerapan Teknologi Pengolahan Dan Peningkatan Distribusi Air Bersih Di Lingkungan Masyarakat RT 36 Kelurahan Graha Indah. Jurnal Karya Abdi Masyarakat, 4(3), 660-666.

Guo, Y., Bai, L., Tang, X., Huang, Q., Xie, B., Wang, T., Wang, J., Li, G., & Liang, H. (2018). Coupling continuous sand filtration to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment: Improved performance and membrane fouling control. Journal of Membrane Science, 567, 18-27.

Keskitalo, T., Tanskanen, J., & Kuokkanen, T. (2007). Analysis of key patents of the regeneration of acidic cupric chloride etchant waste and tin stripping waste. Resources, conservation and recycling, 49(3), 217-243.

Mande, A., Kavathekar, B., Langade, A., Lasankute, N., & Patle, S. (2018). Low Cost Household Water Treatment Systems: A Review. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN, 2278-0181.

Oka, P., Khadem, N., & Bérubé, P. (2017). Operation of passive membrane systems for drinking water treatment. Water Research, 115, 287-296.

Rangreez, T. A., & Asiri, A. M. (2019). Applications of Ion Exchange Materials in Chemical and Food Industries: Springer.

Ranjan, P., & Prem, M. (2018). Schmutzdecke-a filtration layer of slow sand filter. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(07), 637-645.

Said, N. I. (2007). Pengolahan Air Minum dengan Karbon Aktif Bubuk Prinsip Dasar Perhitungan, Perencanaan Sistem Pembubuhan dan Kriteria Disain. Jurnal Air Indonesia, 3(2).

Silva, B., Costa, F., Neves, I. C., & Tavares, T. (2015). Removal of Psychiatric Drugs in Water Treatment Systems. In Psychiatric Pharmaceuticals as Emerging Contaminants in Wastewater (pp. 47-71): Springer.

Tagliavini, M., Weidler, P. G., Njel, C., Pohl, J., Richter, D., & Schńfer, A. I. (2020). Polymer-based spherical activated carbon–ultrafiltration (UF-PBSAC) for the adsorption of steroid hormones from water: material characteristics and process configuration. Water Research, 185, 116249.

Urbanowska, A., & Kabsch-Korbutowicz, M. (2018). The application of nanofiltration in NaOH solution regeneration after ultrafiltration membrane cleaning. Desalination and Water Treatment, 128, 70-78.

Wenten, I. G., Ariono, D., Purwasasmita, M., & Khoirudin. (2017). Integrated processes for desalination and salt production: A mini-review. Paper presented at the AIP Conference Proceedings, 1818, 020065 (2017).

Wenten, I. G., Aryanti, P. T. P., Khoiruddin, K., Hakim, A. N., & Himma, N. F. (2016). Advances in polysulfone-based membranes for hemodialysis. Journal of Membrane Science and Research, 2(2), 78-89. doi:10.22079/JMSR.2016.19155

Wenten, I. G., Khoiruddin, K., Wardani, A. K., Aryanti, P. T. P., Astuti, D. I., & Komaladewi, A. A. I. A. S. (2020). Preparation of antifouling polypropylene/ZnO composite hollow fiber membrane by dip-coating method for peat water treatment. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 34, 101158. doi:

Wenten, I. G., Victoria, A. V., Tanukusuma, G., Khoiruddin, K., & Zunita, M. (2019). Simultaneous clarification and dehydration of crude palm oil using superhydrophobic polypropylene membrane. Journal of Food Engineering, 248, 23-27.

Xu, D., Bai, L., Tang, X., Niu, D., Luo, X., Zhu, X., Li, G., & Liang, H. (2019). A comparison study of sand filtration and ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment: Removal of organic foulants and disinfection by-product formation. Science of the Total Environment, 691, 322-331.

Yin, Z., Ma, Y., Tanis-Kanbur, B., & Chew, J. W. (2020). Fouling behavior of colloidal particles in organic solvent ultrafiltration. Journal of Membrane Science, 599, 117836. doi:

Yu, H., Huang, W., Liu, H., Li, T., Chi, N., Chu, H., & Dong, B. (2021). Application of Coagulation–Membrane Rotation to Improve Ultrafiltration Performance in Drinking Water Treatment. Membranes, 11(8), 643.

Yu, H., Li, X., Chang, H., Zhou, Z., Zhang, T., Yang, Y., Li, G., Ji, H., Cai, C., & Liang, H. (2020). Performance of hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant in China: a systematic evaluation during 7-year operation. Journal of Membrane Science, 613, 118469.

Yu, W., Liu, M., & Graham, N. J. (2019). Combining magnetic ion exchange media and microsand before coagulation as pretreatment for submerged ultrafiltration: Biopolymers and small molecular weight organic matter. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(22), 18566-18573.

Yusuf, K., Sadiku, I., Yusuff, S., & Bukoye, S. (2021). Effect of granular activated carbon particle sizes and depths in slow sand filter on water purification. Nigerian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 34(1), 3881-3891.

Zeman, L. J., & Zydney, A. L. (1996). Microfiltration and ultrafiltration: principles and applications: M. Dekker.

Zhang, Y., & Fu, Q. (2018). Algal fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes and control strategies: A review. Separation and Purification Technology, 203, 193-208. doi:

Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Jia, H., Fu, B., Xu, R., & Fu, Q. (2019). Algal fouling and extracellular organic matter removal in powdered activated carbon-submerged hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane systems. Science of the Total Environment, 671, 351-361.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Aryanti, P. T., Tania Finarianingrum, Annisa Rakhmawati Darlis, Fahmi Widjaya, & Adhani Nur Fajrina5. (2021). Integrated Ion Exchange Resin Activated Carbon Ultrafiltration Unit for Well Water Treatment Into Drinking Water. Jurnal Teknik: Media Pengembangan Ilmu Dan Aplikasi Teknik, 20(2), 146–155.